As for indirect insight into the consequences of terrorism in Africa, the analysis of Elu and Price is of potential significance. They report evidence that remittances to sub-Saharan Africa are used at least in part to finance terrorism. Given that remittances otherwise finance p. To the extent that terrorist activity is correlated with or complements other types of growth-reducing conflict, the analyses of Berdal , Collier, and Hoeffler , Kaldor , and Omeje suggest that the financing of terrorism in sub-Saharan Africa is also important for the promotion, severity, and duration of wars and civil conflicts—which are associated with lower growth in sub-Saharan Africa Gyimah-Brempong and Corley Last but not least, there is some evidence that terrorism in Africa may have some beneficial consequences.
Wanta and Kalyango considered the impact of terrorism in Africa on media events in the USA, and the extent to which it can frame US foreign policy toward Africa. In general, a key finding was that terrorist events in Africa triggered media coverage that was associated with presidential policy initiatives leading to significant inflows of foreign aid in Africa.
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Thus, to the extent that foreign aid is beneficial for Africa Juselius and Moller , and its elasticity with respect to growth is larger than its elasticity with respect to terrorist events e. They found that the high frequency of depopulating wars in Europe prior to had the effect of increasing the ratio of land and capital relative to the population, which catalyzed increases in per capita income for war survivors that has persisted. As for practicality, the weapons of modern warfare are far more destructive of both physical capital and individuals than in the past, and with the exception of poor countries, land—labor ratios are not significant determinants of per capita income.
However, to the extent that terrorism takes hold and persists in poor African countries where land—labor ratios are important determinants of per capita income, if terrorism complements war, the destructive effects could be similar to that of Europe. If for example terrorism in poor African countries induces depopulation due to a mass exodus of individuals seeking safety elsewhere, the ratio of land and capital relative to population could increase. This would cause a rise in per capita incomes and living standards, possibly with persistence as in the case of Europe. We have provided an overview on the causes and consequences of terrorism in Africa by considering the extent to which terrorism in these regions can be explained as rational optimizing behavior, as a political existential good, or as a legacy of history—in particular the effect of exposure to slave trading on contemporary conflict.
The existing literature provides support for and against all these notions for countries in general, but actual and compelling evidence for Africa is sparse. As such, our examination is based mostly on what can be at least weakly inferred from the existing literate, both direct parameter estimates and indirect p. Given the lack of attention to Africa in the existing literature on the economics of terrorism, more research on the causes and consequences of terrorism in Africa is clearly needed. Such research would inform the design of effective counterterrorism policy interventions, given that on average; the consequences of terrorism are likely to be adverse for Africa.
Notwithstanding the sparse literature on terrorism in Africa that would inform effective counterterrorism policy, some recent results regarding governance and regional integration in Africa are perhaps of policy significance.
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Elu and Price found that in West Africa, regional currency integration seems to increase the cost of terrorism, as countries sharing membership in currency unions have fewer terrorists relative to non-member countries. This suggests that regional economic integration in Africa is one policy intervention that can deliver not just higher living standards, but can also affect a reduction in terrorism.
Elu and Price found that terrorists in Africa use remittances to finance terrorism. As remittances are also used to finance growth-inducing investments in physical and human capital, this suggests that terrorism can significantly crowd-out growth, and that stronger counterterrorism measures that monitor and scrutinize remittance inflows into Africa could be an effective way to combat terrorism. Bodea and Elbadwi found that ethnic fractionalization has a negative and direct effect on growth and a positive effect on organized political violence with both effects ameliorated by the institutions specific to a non-factional democratic society.
Bush tracking and warfare in late twentieth-century east and southern Africa
Li found that democratic participation reduces transnational terrorist incidents in a country, government constraints increase the number of those incidents, a proportional representation system experiences fewer transnational terrorist incidents than either the majoritarian or a mixed system. Moreover, strong institutions, enhanced democracy, good governance, and respect for the rule of law and can prevent and enhance the effective and efficient response before and after a terrorist incident.
This suggests that the development of non-factional inclusive democracy in Africa could reduce the frequency and level of conflict such as terror incidents. Abadie, A. Find this resource:. Terrorism and the world economy. European Economic Review , — Abrahamsen, R. A breeding ground for terrorists? Review of African Political Economy , — Anyanwu, J. Do international remittances affect poverty in Africa?
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Journal of Policy Modeling , — Terrorism and game theory. Simulation and Gaming , — Barros, C. Terrorism against American citizens in Africa: related to poverty? Journal of Policy Modeling — Barth, J. Milken Institute, October Research Report, pp. Becker, S. Berdal, M. Beyond greed and grievance and not too soon. Review of International Studies , — Berrebi, C. Berkeley Electronic Press.oooalbatros.ru/img/hyvi-clorochina-difosfato.php
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Human capital and productivity of suicide bombers. Journal of Economics Perspectives , 21 3 — Blomberg, S. Claremont Colleges. The macroeconomic consequences of terrorism. Journal of Monetary Economics, 51 5 — Bodea, C. Political violence and underdevelopment. Journal of African Economies , 17 suppl 2 — Bolaji, K.
Prospects and Challenges
Preventing terrorism in West Africa: good governance or collective security? Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa , — Brandt, P. Hostage taking: understanding terrorism event dynamics. Journal of Policy Modeling, — Brush, S. Dynamics of theory change in the social sciences: relative deprivation and collective violence. Journal of Conflict Resolution , 40 4 — Cilliers, J.
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School of Humanities and Social Sciences
Mortality in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a nationwide survey. Lancet, — Combs, C. Terrorism in the twenty-first century. New Jersey: Prentice. Crenshaw, M. The psychology of terrorism: an agenda for the 21st century. Political Psychology, — Davis, G. Working Paper. Dugan, L. Testing a rational choice model of airline hijackings.
Criminology , Ehrlich, P. Socioeconomic and demographic roots of terrorism, in J. Frost ed. Westport: Praeger Security International, pp.